Red Fort (Lal Quila)
One of the most important monuments in the cultural as well as political scenario of India, the Red Fort is the pride of the capital city of Delhi. It was once the capital of Shahjanabad named after Emperor Shah Jahan. It was during his reign that this awesome monument took its form between 1638 and 1648. The whole structure was named Red Fort or Lal Qila due to the basic material of architecture which is sandstone. It served as the residence of the Mughal Kings for almost 200 years. Later when India became independent, the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the National Flag here and the ritual is still carried on. Every year the Independence Day celebrations are organized here.
The largest mosque and one of the most beautiful examples of Islamic architecture present in India, the Jama Masjid is located just opposite the Red Fort in Delhi. The mosque which means commanding view of the world was built during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1658. It has a very spacious compound that can accommodate thousands of devotees at once. The main architectural attractions are the minarets and towers. The main tower has a 5- storey structure with projecting balconies on each level. The work of calligraphy is worth mentioning too. The main materials used were sandstone and marble.
This is yet another of the Mughal gems and a clear picture of the standard and grandeur of the Mughal designs and styles. It was started by Emperor Humayun but later taken over by Sher Shah Suri. Later Humayun again captured it from Sher Shahs son. The Purana Qila is said to have been built at the banks of the River Yamuna when it had not changed its course and guarded the estate of Indraprastha, mentioned in the Mahabharata. This is also the only monument that has not been named after the one who built it as all the structures inside this was named and renamed with the transfer of ownership every time. The main motive behind the initiation of this monument was that Humayun wanted to build a city on his own. There are three main gateways inside the fort namely Humayun Darwaza, Bara Darwaza and the Talaqui Darwaza. Among these the last one was always closed. The other famous structures inside the Purana Qila are the Qila-e-Kunha Masjid, Sher Mandal observatory and a small museum.
This is one of the most important memorials on the banlks of the Yamuna River flowing in the capital city. not only is it a symbol of the capital city but a national heritage and a place of importance in the political history of India. The main attraction here is the black marble stone block which is placed just over the place where the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi was cremated following his assassination in the year 1948. This block is surrounded by a park which is lined with a number of memorable trees with labels such as the ones planted by Queen Elizabeth, ho Chi Minh of china and other such eminent personalities from the whole world. There are two museums dedicated to Gandhiji just nearby.