Walking further across the Galata bridge you will see the Galata Tower. The tower was built as Christea Turris (Tower of Christ) in 1348 during an expansion of the Genoese colony in Constantinople. This is is a medieval stone tower in the Galata. Built as watchtower to help protect the city especially by spotting fires, this still remains as one of the dominating structures in the city. The cone-capped cylinder dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbul. The view from the top is completely breathtaking from every angle. Seeing some of the more modern structures from the top makes one realize how diverse this old city of Istanbul is.
Hagia Sophia Museum / Church (Ayasofya)
Santa Sofia was for nearly a thousand years, the largest enclosed space in the world and is still seen as one of the world's most important monuments. It is one of Turkey's most popular attractions, people are drawn by the sheer spectacle of its size, the architecture, mosaics and art. It was built in the sixth century by the Byzantine emperor Justinian. It is closed on Monday.
The tour starts around 9.00 in the morning in Taksim Square. This square is famed for its array of restaurants, shops, and hotels. If you love shopping, you'll enjoy Taksim Square. Not just this, the Square also houses the Monument of the Republic inaugurated in 1928. You can also see the nostalgic tram that runs from the square along the avenue.
Dolmabahce Palace was built in the 19th century. It is one of the most glamorous palaces in the world. It was the administrative center of the erstwhile Ottoman Empire when the last of the Ottoman Sultans was residing there. The Dolmabahce Palace is closed on Monday and Thursday.
Beylerbeyi Palace was commissioned by Sultan Abdulaziz (1830-1876) and built between 1861 and 1865 as a summer residence and a place to entertain visiting heads of state. The palace, built on a pier by the sea is a two-story structure built on a high brick basement. The palace, the Harem (north) and Mabeyn-i Humayun (the southern part) consisted of offices, three innings, six large living rooms, 24 rooms and 1 bathroom. It is closed on Mondays and Thursdays.
The Forteleza a monument built in the narrowest section of the Bosphorus covers 30,000 square meters. In preparation for the conquest of Istanbul, the castle was built in about four months in a relatively short period. In some historical documents, it is said that 1,000 masons and workers were employed for construction.