Hagia Sophia Museum / Church (Ayasofya)
Santa Sofia was for nearly a thousand years, the largest enclosed space in the world and is still seen as one of the world's most important monuments. It is one of Turkey's most popular attractions, people are drawn by the sheer spectacle of its size, the architecture, mosaics and art. It was built in the sixth century by the Byzantine emperor Justinian. It is closed on Monday.
Dolmabahce Palace was built in the 19th century. It is one of the most glamorous palaces in the world. It was the administrative center of the erstwhile Ottoman Empire when the last of the Ottoman Sultans was residing there. The Dolmabahce Palace is closed on Monday and Thursday.
Beylerbeyi Palace was commissioned by Sultan Abdulaziz (1830-1876) and built between 1861 and 1865 as a summer residence and a place to entertain visiting heads of state. The palace, built on a pier by the sea is a two-story structure built on a high brick basement. The palace, the Harem (north) and Mabeyn-i Humayun (the southern part) consisted of offices, three innings, six large living rooms, 24 rooms and 1 bathroom. It is closed on Mondays and Thursdays.
The rock of this particular area is of a kind that is malleable and easily crafted. Thus the churches as well as the Uchisar Castle rather than being erected like buildings are structures crafted out of and into the rock faces and the mountainous geography. Uchisar is the highest point in the region and the castle that has been hollowed out into the rock provides excellent views of the region below with Mount Erciyes in the background, seeing tiny holes in the rocks and also numerous fairy chimneys on the land below. Walking through the dark and cool rooms of the castle, up and down stairs cut out of rock, the castle seems like a dwarfish settlement out of one of Tolkiens books! Though erosion and decay have made many areas of the castle inaccessible, many such rooms are used as pigeon houses.