I would suggest leaving from Haarlem early morning and after covering all attractions by the day, you should retire back to Haarlem catching the Last train available.
You can even choose to Hire a bicycle because.. helloo? you are in Amsterdam! Amsterdam is the most bicycle friendly country in the world and you will see people wearing tuxedos and riding down to work!
You can choose to hire a Bicycle from any local store or maybe even go for an App called - Donkey Republic. They provide Bicycles not just in Amsterdam but all across europe starting from 6 Euros/ Day.
When in Europe, you will see one of the finest Public transport systems in the world. Anywhere remotest that you would like to go, you will have a bus or a tram or a train taking you there, without fail!
A Travel pass will cost anywhere starting from 10 Euros to 30 Euros depending on their duration and access.
A scoop of icecream for 5 Euros- Yes, you heard it right! Amsterdam is one of the most expensive cities in the world without a doubt! But if planned and spent correctly, you can manage to stay in any part of the world with just the right amount of expenses.
When is Amsterdam, I would really recommend exploring Supermarket giants like Albert Heijn and chances are pretty high that you can get a nice bowl of noodles and chicken for as low as 8 Euros! I remember spending 4 Euros for a chicken Salad!
You can always buy Breads(1 Euros to 3 Euros) and eggs (2 Euros) and croissants and local grocery and cook at your airbnb as you get a proper cooking space there with the required essentials! Good Deal, isn't it? :)
Everyone has their priorities in place when they are travelling to Amsterdam, hehe! But nonetheless, Amsterdam definitely has some amazing places to see and I would highly recommend visiting these while you are there!