Not to be confused with Papua New Guinea, which is an independent country, Papua makes up the eastern border of Indonesia. The biggest draw is the traditional cultures that are still around and also Lorentz National Park, which is also the biggest national park in Asia.
Get in: Jayapura is the main airport, and the easiest way to access Papua. There is boat connectivity from all neighbouring islands, which is worth it if you have the time.
Transportation in Indonesia
Public transportation in most of Indonesia is cheap and reliable. Most of the locals get around on public buses, trains and ferries, so connectivity exists in even the remotest parts of Indonesia, even if it's sometimes slow and infrequent.
Local transport: Motorcycle taxis, known as a ojek, are available across the breadth of the country, especially in the hinterlands where four-wheelers are not that prevalent.
Buses: Usually the cheapest way to get around overland. There are local buses and minibuses between every city, town and village. Private buses (air-conditioned, reclining seats) run between most tourist destinations, especially on Java, Bali and Sumatra. For local buses, tickets can either be purchased on the bus or at the main bus station. Private buses are usually booked through travel agents.
Trains: Train connectivity is great on Java, patchy in Sumatra and non-existent on all other islands. Tickets can be purchased online, up to two days in advance.
Ferry: There's ferry connectivity between all islands. Between main tourist spots, there is frequent (daily/hourly) connectivity - often on diesel-powered tourist boats. Shipping Vessels operated by Pelni, Indonesia's national shipping carrier, connects all the islands on a monthly or fortnightly basis. Click here for a route map. Tickets can be purchased through travel agents and from booking offices on ferry terminals throughout the country.
Other water transportation includes fishing boats (mainly for diving trips) and longboats (river boats, mainly on Kalimantan). River ferries also ply up and down on several rivers, carrying passengers, vehicles and cargo.
Visa on arrival: Indonesia offers a visa on arrival to citizens of many countries, including India. The cost is $35 (usually payable in US dollars) for a 30 day visa. Here's the complete list of countries for the VoA program.
This article attempts to provide a detailed, but still very incomplete glimpse of Indonesia's many, many islands. If you've visited these places, especially in Eastern Indonesia, please share what you can: photos, reviews, travelogues and guides.