Getting out of the Airport in Goa:
Goa Miles - Watching the sea from the window, you land at Goa's Dabolim airport. Dabolim is in North Goa, closer to the most popular beaches of the state Calangute and Anjuna. However, you must be reminded that Goa airport is close but not at a walkable distance from these places, and you would require private vehicles. Uber and Ola are not available in Goa, so the best available option is Goa miles.
While you can also find a Goa Miles booth at the airport arrivals, it would be handy if you download their app as soon as you land. You can pre-book your travel on Goa miles app and be assured of the arrival, not having to worry of the bizarre taxi rates of the local players.
Local Buses - What if you are travelling on a smaller budget and can't afford taxis. There's a pretty easy solution to that too. All you need to do is, get out of the airport to the highway.
Local buses run from Vasco bus stand to Madgaon bus stand frequently, and you can hop into one of them pretty easily. This bus takes you do Madgaon which is a hub for transport to all parts of Goa, and you can find buses to north (Panjim, Mapusa), Central (Ponda) or south Goa (Cancona) for as cheap as 20-40 Rs.
Dabolim Railway Station - If you are carrying a backpack/ light luggage, you may also walk (1.3 kms) to the Dabolim railway station which connects to Madgaon. However, you must check the local train timings. In any case, it would be easier for you to catch a bus than a train. But yes, railways is also an option.
Distance of some popular places from Goa Airport: